Water Well Drilling By Hand And Understanding The Principles Of Drilling For Water
Both of these water well digging methods are effective with a bit of determination. First you dig the well, then you'll need to case it with piping and place a pump of sorts inside. There are various hand pumps available as well as electric pumps, solar panels for electric, or wind mill water pumps that can pump lots and lots of water.
Approximately 97 percent of the fresh water available in the world is underground. Wells provide groundwater for individual domestic needs, communities, cities, industry, crop irrigation, and agriculture. Some wells tap hot water, or geothermal resources. In other cases, groundwater is used solely for its cooling capabilities. Some wells are dug solely to study water quality or quantity: these are called monitoring wells or observation wells.
Regardless of its purpose, a well is defined as an artificial hole in the land surface created to access a liquid. It normally has a small diameter, typically less than 3 meters (10 feet), and usually measured in centimeters (inches). Wells may be constructed to seek water, oil, or natural gas. This article focuses on water wells and their construction.
Parts of a Well
The top portion of a well is commonly called the wellhead. The appearance of the wellhead varies depending on its purpose, when and how it was constructed, and what materials were available when it was built. A hand-dug well may look like the nursery rhyme well in Jack and Jill—a deep hole surrounded by a stone wall. Most wells however, appear as a pipe, usually 5 to 25 centimeters (2 to 10 inches) in diameter, sticking up a short distance above the ground, typically less than 60 centimeters (2 feet). In cold climates, the wellhead may be covered by a wellhouse or pumphouse to help minimize potential damage from freezing weather. When a well is constructed in an area where an above-ground structure would create a problem, such as in a road, the wellhead may be in a vault. The vault usually has a strong cement floor, with a drain, cement walls, and a steel top.
The typical components of a well include the sanitary seal, casing, casing seal, well screen, and the pump (see the figure below).